• April 1972-November 1974. Associate Professor at the University of Khartoum with local working contract. In May-June 1972, fieldwork in North Darfur with focus on iron smelting under grant from the University of Khartoum.
  • September-October 1973. Study of the ceramic production in South Darfur.
  • February-March 1978. Grant from the Norwegian Research Council for study of iron smelting and ceramic production in North Darfur.


1978: ‘Ethnographical Observations of Pottery-Making in Darfur, Western Sudan, with Some Reflections on Archaeological Interpretations’. In New Directions in Scandinavian Archaeology. In: Kristiansen, K. and P. Müller (eds.), pp. 48-61. Copenhagen: National Museum Publication.

1985 with Peter Shinnie (eds.): African iron working – ancient and traditional. Oslo. University Publishers.

1996 with Gunnar Haaland: ‘Levels of Meaning in Symbolic Objects’. Cambridge Journal of Archaeology. Vol. 6, No 2. Cambridge.

2002 with Gunnar Haaland and Suman Rijal: ‘The Social Life of Iron’. Anthropos. Vol. 97: pp. 35-54.

2004: ‘Technology, Transformation, and Symbolism: Ethnographic Perspectives on European Iron Working‘. Norwegian Archaeological Review, Vol.37, 1-19.

2006: ‘Food, Pots, and Gender’. In Barndon, R., S. Innselset, K.K. Kristoffersen, and T.K. Lødøen: Samfunn, symboler og identitet – Festskrift til Gro Mandt på 70-årsdagen, pp. 261-278. Bergen: Arkeologisk institutt, Universitetet i Bergen.

2006: ‘Africa and the Near East: Pot and Porridge, Bread and Oven-two food systems maintained over 10.000 years.’ In H.-P. Wotzka (ed.): Beitrage Zur europaischen und africanischen Archeaologie fur Manfred Eggert, pp. 243-255. Tubingen/Basel: Francke Verlag.

2007: ‘Technology, Transformation and Symbolism: Ethnographic Perspectives on European Iron Working’. In Andren, A., K. Jennbert, and C. Raudvere (eds.): Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives, pp. 78-85. Lund: Nordic Academic Press.

2008: ‘Say It in Iron: Symbols of Transformation and Reproduction in European Iron Age’. Current Swedish Archaeology, Vol. 15, pp. 91-110.

2010: ‘Aqualithic Resource Ultilization and the Emergence of Pottery during the Late Paleolithic-Mesolithic’ In T. Østegård (ed.): A Global Perspective from the Nile to China. In Water, Culture and Society, pp. 183-205. Bergen: Brick Press.


1972: ‘Lithic Material’. In H.-Å. Nordström (ed.): Neolithic and A-group sites. Scandinavian Joint Expedition to Sudanese Nubia. Vol. III, pp. 95-116. Oslo: University Publishers.

1977: Archaeological Classification and Ethnic Groups: A case study from Sudanese Nubia. Norwegian Archaeological Review. Vol. 10, pp. 1-18.

1978: The seasonal interconnection between Zakiab and Kadero: Two Neolithic sites in Central Sudan. Nyame Akuma. Vol. 13, pp. 31-35.1979: Report on the 1979 Season in Sudan. Nyame Akuma, Vol. 14, p. 62.

1979: Le rôle de l’homme dans l’habitat changeant de Mema pendand le vieux royaume de Ghana. ILCA. Working document. Vol. 2, pp. 1-27.

1980: Man’s Role in the changing Habitat of Mema during the Old kingdom of Ghana. Norwegian Archaeological Review. Vol. 13, pp. 31-47.

1981: Seasonality and Division of Labour: A Case Study from the Khartoum Nile Environment. Norwegian Archaeological Review. Vol. 14, pp. 44-59.

1981: Lithic tools as possible indicators of early domestications. In Leakey R.E. and B. A. Ogote (eds.): Proceedings of the 8th Panafrican Congress of Prehistory. Nairobi, pp. 265-265. Nairobi.

1984: Seasonal Variation Among Neolithic Sites in Central Sudan. In J.M. Plumley (ed.): Society for Nubian Studies publications, pp. 100-103. Cambridge.

1984  with Tigani el Mahi: Archaeological Research in the Area of Rabak and Atbara, Sudan 1983-84. Nyame Akuma. Vol. 24, pp. 28-32.

1984: Continuity and Discontinuity. How to account for a two thousand years gap in the culture history of the Khartoum Nile environment. Norwegian Archaeological Review. Vol. 17, pp. 39-52.

1987: Socio-Economic Differentiation in the Neolithic Sudan. Cambridge: Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology.

1987: Problems in the Mesolithic and Neolithic Culture History in the Central Nile Valley, Sudan. In T. Hägg (ed.): Nubian Culture: Past and Present, pp. 47-74. Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhetshistorie och Antikvitets Akademiens Konferenser 17.

1988: The Role of Ethno-archaeology and Experimental Archaeology in the Interpretation of Prehistoric Societies. In Svein I., S.H. Kaland and S. Bergljot (eds.): Arkeologiske Skrifter Vol. 4 fra Historisk museum, pp. 130-140. Bergen: University of Bergen.

1989: The Late Neolithic Culture Historical Sequence in Central Sudan. In L. Krzyzaniak and M. Kobusiewicz (eds.): Late Prehistory the Nile Basin and the Sahara, pp. 359-367. Poznan: Poznan Museum Press.

 1989: On the Use of Archaeological and Linguistic Evidence in the Socio~Cultural Evolution in Prehistoric Sudan. In Skarstein R., E. Kleppe and R.B. Finnestad (eds.): Understanding and History in Arts and Sciences, pp. 127-144. Oslo: Solum Forlag.

1991 with Anwar Abdul Magid: Atbara Research Project. The Fieldseasons of 1985, 1987, 1989 and 1990. Nyame Akuma, Vol. 35, pp. 36-44.

1991: Specialized Pastoralism and the Use of Secondary Products in Prehistoric Sudan. Archéologie du Nil Moyen. Vol. 5, pp. 149-155.

1991 with Anwar Abdul Magid: Mesolithic Sites in the Atbara Region. Nubian Letters. Vol. 18, pp. 1-5. The Hague.

1992 with Anwar Abdul Magid: Radiocarbon Dates from Mesolithic sites in the Atbara Region, Sudan. Nyame Akuma. Vol. 37, pp. 17- 28.

1992: ‘Fish, Pots and Grain in Early and Mid-Holocene Adaptations in the Central Sudan’. African Archaeological Review, Vol. 10, pp. 43-64.

1993: Aqualithic Sites in the Middle Nile Region. Azania. Vol. 28, pp. 47-86.

1994: Husholdet som faktor i utvikling av sendentisme: Mesolittiske tilpasninger i Sudan. Arkeologiske Skrifter. Arkeologisk Institutt. Bergen Museum. Vol. 8, pp. 27-43.

1995 with Anwar Abdul Magid (eds.): Aqualithic Sites Along the Rivers Nile and Atbara, Sudan. Bergen: Alma Mater.

1995: ‘Sedentism, Cultivation and Plant Domestication in the Holocene Middle Nile Region’. Journal of Field Archaeology, Vol. 22, pp. 157-173.

1996: Early Holocene Sites and the Emergence of Sedentism in the Atbara Region. In Gratien B. (ed.): Proceedings of the 8th International Conference for Nubian Studies. Cahiers de l’Institute de Papyrologie et d’Egypologie de Lille. Vol. 17, pp. 97-116.

1996: A Socio-economic Perspective on the Transition from Gathering, Cultivation to Domestication. A Case Study of Sorghum in the Middle Nile Region. In G. Piwity and R. Soper (eds.): Aspects of African Archaeology, pp. 391-401. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications.

1997: ‘Emergence of Sedentism: New Ways of Living, New Ways of Symbolizing’. Antiquity, Vol. 71, no. 272, pp. 374- 385.

2007 with Gunnar Haaland: Gods of War, Wordily Ruler and Craft Specialists in the Meroitic Kingdom of Sudan. Journal of Social Archaeology. Vol. 7 (2), pp. 373- 392.

2007: Porridge and Pot, Bread and Oven: Food Ways and Symbolism in Africa and the Near East from the Neolithic to the Present. Cambridge Archaeological Journal. Vol. 17, pp. 165-182.

2009: Middle Asian and African Culture Areas as Defined by their Cuisines. Core Areas and Interactions. In Naguib N. (ed.): Food and Foodways in the Middle East, pp. 15-37. Bergen: Bric.

2009: Ancient Nubia. A culinary Cross-Road between Africa and the Near East. In Hafsaas-Tsakos H. and A. Tsakos (eds.): Connecting South and North. Sudan Studies from Bergen in Honour of Mahmoud Saleh, pp. 19-40. Bergen: Bric.

2012: Changing Food Ways as Indicators of Emerging Complexity in Sudanese Nubia: From Neolithic Agropastoralists to the Meroitic Civilization. Azania. Vol. 47 (3), pp. 327-342.

Randi Haaland